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Copper and its production.

In addition to improving individual metallurgical processes is possible on the basis of the creation of technological schemes of continuous converting of copper raw materials with the participation of both new and already known processes. Construction of such circuits is based on a process using known processes for continuous autogenous smelting and continuous production of blister copper. This furnace technology for smelting and converting furnace work consistently. Copper concentrate is melted in a melting unit for matte and slag. The liquid matte from the smelting furnace is directed to converting furnace where oxidized to blister copper oxides are collected by the slag.

Creating a continuous conversion process allows almost completely recycled and eliminate emissions of SO2 at the stage periodically convert, move away from uncontrolled emissions. Continuous production of blister copper can direct a steady stream of sulphurous gases and sulfuric acid production almost completely disposed of sulfur contained in the charge.

The chemical reactions occurring during continuous conversion represented by oxidation of iron and sulfur matte to copper metal and the specific composition of the slag. The chemistry of the process captures the end of the first period, converting the entire second period conversion. There is iron sulphide oxidation reaction in the presence of calcium and silicate flux to form a so-called calcium ferrite slag and oxidation of copper sulfide to copper metal.

[FeS · Cu2S] + O2 + CaO + SiO2 → [Cu] + (Fe2 O3 · SiO2 · CaO · Cu2O) + SO2

In this technology for smelting furnace and converting operate independently from each other, since the liquid matte from the furnace is cooled PBP (granulated) and sent to the warehouse.

In 1995, at the company's Kennecott smelter in Salt Lake City was put into operation a complex that includes flash smelting furnace of copper concentrates and suspended solid matte converting furnace type PVP. In this technology for smelting furnace and converting operate independently from each other, since the liquid matte from the furnace is cooled PBP (granulated) and sent to the warehouse. In the oven weighted converting solid matte is fed from the warehouse, after having passed grinding. This decision was taken by developers to increase the flexibility of managing complex and the possible use of converter furnace flash smelting pure technical oxygen, which can significantly reduce the size of gas of utilization of equipment and substantially reduced capital and operating costs of the complex.

Pa today known processes of continuous conversion technology-based Ayzasmelt and Noranda. There is a similar design and process-based Vanyukov. Theoretical and experimental studies, as well as experience in operating the furnace MF-6,2 (JSC «Norilsk combine») for the smelting of copper concentrate from the separation of high-grade matte displays a real opportunity to obtain a continuous blister copper in the apparatus of the type PB. The main difficulty of converting a continuous liquid matte is a strict dosing flow of liquid matte and feed on it is strictly metered amount of oxygen in the blast. The developers of the process and Vanyukov Ayzasmelt process concluded greater efficiency and adaptability of continuous conversion is not liquid and solid matte, which is quite easy to keep the ratio of the amount of oxygen in the filed of matte.

Traditionally, a number of technologies for continuous production of blister copper or white mat associated with carrying out the process in a horizontal converter Pierce Smith. For this type of technology include the process of Noranda and Teniente process. Another type of technology as related to feed into the melt blowing uses for continuous production of blister copper metallurgical units with a vertical blast. It processes and Mitsubishi Ayzasmelt.

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