Terbium grades, chemical composition


Terbium is a chemical element number 65 of group III of D. I. Mendeleev's table, in which it is designated as Tb. Its atomic weight is 159. It is a silvery metal of the lanthanoid series. The credit for its discovery belongs to two scientists. In 1843, Swedish chemist Mosander was able to separate yttrium, terbium and erbium oxides by decomposition. And only sixty years later, the French scientist J. Urbain was able to obtain pure terbium. The content of this element in the lithosphere is 4.3 g/t. Industry today obtains metallic terbium from a mixture of rare earth elements by metallothermic reduction. Determination of the admixture of terbium oxides is regulated by GOST 23 862.15-79.

Physicochemical properties

Melting point is 1356 °C, boiling point 3227 °C. Specific weight under normal conditions is almost 8.3 g/cm³. Under normal conditions in the air, this metal is fairly stable, its a-modification has a hexagonal structure similar to Mg, stable up to t ° 1287 ° C and cubic b-modification (similar in type to the structure of a-Fe) at further increasing temperature. A terbium modification with a trigonal lattice is obtained under 1 GPa pressure. In water, Tb (OH)3 is formed at boiling point. Mineral acids readily dissolve terbium to form salts. If the salts of terbium are calcined in air at t ° 800 °-1000 ° C, it is possible to isolate the oxide Tb4 O7. TbO2 dioxide is formed by thermal decomposition of Tb (OH)3. The trivalent terbium ion is the most stable. Tetravalent ion exists only in hetero-poly compounds.

Atomic number Atomic (molar) mass g/mol oxidation state Density [g/cm3] Melting point t°C Boiling point t ° C Melting point kJ/kg
№ 65 159 3, 4 8,23 1356°С 3023°С 389


Laser optics, production of phosphors, thermoelectric and magnetic materials, magnetostrictive alloys, semiconductor parts of computers. Terbium-doped iron is considered to be the best magnetostrictive alloy today and serves as the basis for powerful ultrasonic radiators as well as giant servomotors, such as large telescopes. In addition, experimental terbium compounds such as Tb titanate monocrystal, which has enormous magnetostriction, are used.


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