Titanium is light silver metal, element number 22 of IV group of periodic table of Mendeleev. It was discovered at end of 18th century independently by Englishman W. Gregor and German chemist Klaprot. Already at that time titanium was dubbed «metal of the future», he demonstrated such extraordinary qualities. Its strength is akin to strength of damask steel, while it is much lighter than other metals, resistant to corrosion and aggressive media, easily forged and stamped. Its corrosion resistance is higher than that of noble metal alloys, and its low specific gravity is comparable to aluminum. Low creep of titanium is similar to stainless steel, and extensibility and ductility — at level of copper. It retains its qualities from -250 °C to t° red-hot steel. Exceptional specific strength, wear resistance, heat resistance — made it indispensable material at forefront of 21st century industry.
|Temperature at which these characteristics are obtained t °C||20°С|
|Coefficient of linear thermal expansion α [1/Grad]||8,2x10−6|
|Elastic modulus of first kind, E [MPa] x10-5||1,12|
|Specific heat at 20 °C [kJ/(kg•deg)]||0,586|
|Thermal conductivity K [W/(m•K)]||300,173|
|Coefficient of thermal conductivity, l [W/(m•deg)]||8,37|
Main method for producing titanium is reduction of TiCl4 at high temperatures with sodium or magnesium. Hot titanium easily reacts with atmospheric gases, so main goal of production technologies is to minimize contact of hot metal with N2, O2, H2. Main disadvantage is high cost and energy intensity of process. In metal science, titanium alloys are classified according to configuration of crystal lattices: β-state (in form of cube), α-state (in form of hexahedron) and α + β (mixed state). According to processing method, alloys are divided into foundry and deformable.
Titanium hire is stored in covered warehouses or under canopy, where adequate protection against mechanical and other types of damage is provided.
Alloys for rocket science and aircraft are produced on basis of titanium. Lightness and heat resistance of titanium allow its use in manufacture of thermal equipment. It is in demand in cryogenic industry because it maintains high ductility and strength in extreme cold conditions. Most critical parts for shipbuilding are made from titanium alloys, including hulls and propellers of submarines. Its biological inertness makes it possible to create structural materials for reconstructive surgery and use in food and pharmaceutical industries. Bulletproof vests are made of titanium and used in modern design. Due to biological inertness, titanium is used to create surgical instruments and prostheses.
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