Gadolinium grades, chemical composition

Gadolinium - in the periodic system, this chemical element is in the third group. Its atomic number is 64 and its atomic weight is 157.25. It belongs to the lanthanides. It received its name after the Finnish chemist Gadolin. It was discovered in 1880 by J. de Marignac, who proved the presence of a new element in a mixture of rare-earth metal oxides.

Atomic number of Gd. Atomic (molar) mass g/mol Oxidation state Density [g/cm3] Melting point t °С Boiling point t°C melting point kJ/kg
№ 64 157,25 3 7,9 1313°С 3266°С 10

Proliferation and extraction.

Ocean water has a gadolinium content of 2.4-10-6 mg/L, and 8 g/t in the Earth's crust (according to Taylor). Gadolinium is obtained by reducing GdCl3 chloride or GdF3 fluoride with calcium. Gadolinium compounds are obtained by separating rare earth oxides into fractions.


This element has an inexhaustible sphere of use. This is due not only to its nuclear-physical properties, but also to its high degree of manufacturability. Most often gadolinium is used in nuclear power and electronics.
Its alloys with cobalt and iron allowed the creation of new data carriers with high recording density. The newest technologies are used to grow single-crystal gadolinium - gallium garnet. This element is required in the production of solid-state lasers, which are used extensively in medicine and in the beam treatment of stone and metal. With its high ability to capture neutrons, gadolinium has found applications in nuclear reactor control and for neutron shielding. Gd2 O3 oxide is used to cook glass, which absorbs thermal neutrons. Gadolinium hexaboride is used in the manufacture of cathodes for powerful electron guns, X-ray machines. The alloy of iron and gadolinium is a very high-capacity hydrogen accumulator, so it found use in a hydrogen car. In medicine, Gd-153 is used in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. GdCl3 chloride is used in the treatment of the liver when Kupffer blockade is necessary. Gadodiamide, a contrast drug, also contains gadolinium. Alloy of this metal with nickel is used in the production of containers designed to store radioactive waste. Lately the monocrystalline gadolinium-terbium alloy has attracted great interest. It is used in manufacture of refrigerators.


Rolled gadolinium alloys are produced in the form of bars, wires, sheets in accordance with technical specifications (TS). GOST 23 862.13-79 - regulates the content of gadolinium oxide impurities determined by the luminescent method. GOST 23 862.5-79 - normalizes the spectral analysis of Gd2 O3.

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