Goldmium grades, chemical composition
Holmium is a rare-earth element of group III of the Mendeleev system, where it is designated as Ho. Chemical number 67. Its atomic weight is 164.93. It is a stable isotope of the lanthanoid group, a soft metal of a light gray color, very malleable and ductile. It is obtained by reduction of HoF3 fluoride with calcium. Swiss scientist J. Sore discovered this metal by spectral analysis in "erbium earth". And chemist P. Kleve from Sweden managed to isolate holmium oxides and named this element after the ancient name of the Swedish capital Holmia. Holmium is dissolved in the world's oceans in an amount of 2.2x10-7%, its content in the lithosphere is 1.3x10-4%. It occurs most often with other rare-earth elements in apatite, bastenesite, gadolinite, and monazite. In chemical compounds it is oxidized to +3. It is stable in the atmosphere of fluorine. Reacts with nitrogen, bromine, hydrogen and chlorine when increasing temperature.
|Atomic number Ho||Atomic (molar) mass g/mol||Oxidation state||Density [g/cm3]||Melting point t ° C||Boiling point t ° C||Melting point kJ/kg|
This rare earth metal refers to non-ferrous metals. It is used in the production of lasers and thermoelectric materials, metallurgy, microelectronics, nuclear energy (holmium borate). Holmium ions generate laser radiation in the infrared part of the spectrum with a wavelength of 2 microns. Holmium is used to produce powerful magnetic fields in the manufacture of pole tips of superconducting magnets. Here holmium+erbium alloy is indispensable. Radioactive isotope Ho-166 is used in analytical chemistry as a radioactive indicator. Holmium salts are relevant in the production of special glasses and as an activator for luminophores. This metal is used to produce rods, sheet, wire, and ribbon.
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