Erbium brand, chemical structure
Erbium is a rare earth element 68 of group III of the table of D. I. Mendeleev, which he designated as Er. It is a soft silvery-white metal. Belongs to the group of lanthanides. The atomic weight 167,26. Opened in 1843 by Swedish scientist Mazanderan. He was able to isolate this element from the mineral, which was found near the town of Ytterby. In honor of this town erbium and got a name. Its distribution in the lithosphere of about 3.3 g/t When extracted from ore, it is concentrated together with other heavy lanthanides. It is obtained by electrolysis of molten ErCl3 together with chloride salts of sodium, potassium and calcium.
The density of erbium 9,062 g/cm3. It has a hexagonal lattice with parameters C = 0,55 and 874 nm, a = 0,35 588 nm. Temperature reaches melting point 1522 °C, t° boiling point of 2510 °C. the Valence of +3. Easily interacts with oxygen and the Halogens: bromine, iodine, fluorine and chlorine with the formation of salts.
|Atomic number Er||Atomic (molar) mass, g/mol||The degree of oxidation||Density [g/cm3]||The melting temperature t°C||The boiling point of t°C||The heat of fusion kJ/kg|
|No. 67||167,26||2, 3||9,062||1522°C||2510°C||398|
Used in the nuclear power industry, in fiber and laser optics. He contributes to the activation of phosphorus in the smelting of iron and magnetic iron alloys with Nickel and cobalt. Oxide Er2 O3 (sometimes a borate) mixed with uranium oxide significantly improves the distribution, as well as technical-economic indicators and the safety of RBMK reactors. Erbium is present in the control rods of nuclear boilers. Like other metals from the lanthanides group, and it is available in the form of a circle, wire, sheets, etc. In the manufacture of optical fibers in a quartz melt is added to the oxide Er2 O3. In the manufacture of high-performance lasers are also used single crystals of the oxide. Oxide Er2 O3 is included in laser glass, phosphors, special ceramics. Its MPC in air of not more than 4mg/m3. Erbium salts are used for melting colored glass and special. glass with large coefficient of absorption of infrared rays. Determination of impurities of oxides of erbium spectral method normalizes GOST 23 862.22−79. This standard specifies a colorimetric method of determining chromium in erbie.
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