Samarium brand, chemical composition


Samarium is in the third group of D. Mendeleev's table, where it is designated by the chemical symbol Sm. Atomic number No. 59, Refers to lanthanides. atomic weight 150.36. It was isolated from the mineral samarskite. Content in lithosphere is 8 g/t, dissolved in seawater at 1.7-10-6 mg/l, obtained by electrolytic or metallothermic method, most part by ion-exchange from monazite sand. Annual world consumption is several hundreds of tons.

Atomic number Atomic (molar) mass g/mol Oxidation state Density [g/cm3] Melting point t ° C Boiling point t ° C Melting point kJ/kg
№ 59 150,36 2, 3 7,52 1097°С 1791°С 165

Physico-chemical properties

In terms of its technological qualities, this metal is similar to zinc, while in appearance it resembles lead. Under normal conditions in the air, samarium is covered with a dark oxide film Sm2 O3, with further oxidation the metal turns into a grayish-yellow powder. In compounds has a valence +3. It is inflammable in the air. Easily soluble by inorganic acids. It forms nitride with nitrogen, carbide with carbon, hydride with hydrogen, boron with boron, etc.

Applications of

Production of thermoelectric and strain-sensitive materials. Samarium and cobalt are the basis of powerful permanent magnets. Determination of samarium in dual Sm+Co alloys by the complexometric method is regulated by GOST 25 278.8-82. The alloy with Zr, Co, Cu, Hf and Fe achieves a high level of residual induction and coercive force. In nuclear power, this metal helps control atomic decay. Compared to elements like boron or cadmium that hold back thermal neutrons, samarium "does not burn out" in a reactor, and when irradiated it forms isotopes with a wide neutron capture cross-section as well. In cell phone designs and color displays, samarium is used as a phosphor activator. It is used in solid and liquid lasers and in electrodes for glow discharge starters.


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