Gallium grades, chemical composition

Gallium in D. Mendeleev's periodic system of chemical elements is designated as Ga. It is in the main subgroup of the 3rd group of the 4th period. Its atomic number is 31. It is a malleable and soft metal of silvery-white color with a bluish tint, and has two isotopes. The name of the element was given by Paul Efmil Lecoq de Boisbaudran, who suggested that the new metal be named after his homeland, Gaul.

The atomic number of Ga Atomic (molar) mass g/mol Oxidation state Density [g/cm3] Melting point t ° C Boiling point t ° C Melting point kJ/kg
№ 31 69,7 3 5,904 29,8°С 2230°С 5,59

Physical properties

Crystalline gallium has a number of polymorphic modifications. Of these only one is thermodynamically stable. The others are unstable. In solid state at 20 °C gallium density is 5.904 g/cm3. Liquid gallium has a density of 6.095 g/cm³. That is, the volume of gallium increases as it solidifies. Boiling point = 2230 °C, and t° of melting 29.8 °C. A feature of liquid gallium is its wide temperature range (30 to 2230°C). It also has a low vapor pressure at 1100-1200°C. In solid and liquid form, the specific electrical resistance of this metal is the same.

Chemical properties

Gallium is similar to aluminum in its properties. It is protected from oxidation by a surface oxide film. Gallium reacts with hot water and forms gallium oxide hydrate compounds with superheated steam. At temperatures below room temperature gallium reacts actively with mineral acids with release of H2 and formation of salts. This metal does not interact with carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, bromine and silicon. At high temperatures, it is capable of destroying various materials, having an action stronger than the melt of any other metal.


Gallium arsenide is a promising semiconductor. It is used to create LEDs and lasers of ultraviolet and blue range. Gallium is quite expensive metal. In 2010, it cost almost $1,500 per kilogram. Gallium is not only an excellent lubricant, it is also the basis for metal adhesives.


Alloys of this metal are rolled: bars, wires, sheets , etc. The methods of determining the elements in the alloys are normalized. For example, for tin it is GOST 13 637.5-93, Anchor. For iron it is GOST 13 637.4-93, Gallium. For selenium it is GOST 13 637.6-93, Gallium. For sulfur GOST 13 637.7-93, Anchor. For tellurium GOST 13 637.8-93, Gallium. For phosphorus GOST 13 637.9-93, Gallium. GOST 12 697.13-90 normalizes the definition of gallium itself.

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