Gallium grades, chemical composition
|The atomic number of Ga||Atomic (molar) mass g/mol||Oxidation state||Density [g/cm3]||Melting point t ° C||Boiling point t ° C||Melting point kJ/kg|
Crystalline gallium has a number of polymorphic modifications. Of these only one is thermodynamically stable. The others are unstable. In solid state at 20 °C gallium density is 5.904 g/cm3. Liquid gallium has a density of 6.095 g/cm³. That is, the volume of gallium increases as it solidifies. Boiling point = 2230 °C, and t° of melting 29.8 °C. A feature of liquid gallium is its wide temperature range (30 to 2230°C). It also has a low vapor pressure at 1100-1200°C. In solid and liquid form, the specific electrical resistance of this metal is the same.
Gallium is similar to aluminum in its properties. It is protected from oxidation by a surface oxide film. Gallium reacts with hot water and forms gallium oxide hydrate compounds with superheated steam. At temperatures below room temperature gallium reacts actively with mineral acids with release of H2 and formation of salts. This metal does not interact with carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, bromine and silicon. At high temperatures, it is capable of destroying various materials, having an action stronger than the melt of any other metal.
Gallium arsenide is a promising semiconductor. It is used to create LEDs and lasers of ultraviolet and blue range. Gallium is quite expensive metal. In 2010, it cost almost $1,500 per kilogram. Gallium is not only an excellent lubricant, it is also the basis for metal adhesives.
RolledAlloys of this metal are rolled: bars, wires, sheets
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